[65], Chile achieved global recognition for the successful rescue of 33 trapped miners in 2010. It achieved relative political stability, and set about rapid development of agriculture, mining, industry and commerce. They became adept at raiding Spanish settlements and, albeit in declining numbers, managed to hold off the Spaniards and their descendants until the late 19th century. The first human beings arrived in Chile about 12,000 BC. The new constitution gave increased powers to the presidency. Presidents and constitutions rose and fell quickly in the 1820s. The next congressional elections are scheduled for December 2021. After 20 years, Chile went in a new direction with the win of center-right Sebastián Piñera,[63] in the Chilean presidential election of 2009–2010. In the 1970 presidential election, Senator Salvador Allende Gossens won a plurality of votes in a three-way contest. The beginning of the Independence movement is traditionally dated as September 18, 1810 when a national junta was established to govern Chile in the name of the deposed king Ferdinand VII. The takeover of the government ended a 46-year history of democratic rule in Chile. The judiciary is independent of the executive and the legislature of Chile. Some repressions kill hundreds of people. In 1970, Salvador Allende, founder of the Chilean Socialist party, was elected as president, winning with only 36 percent of the vote and strong opposition from the political right. Chile has also had a history of retaining representative democratic government. He continued his explorations of the region west of the Andes and founded over a dozen towns and established the first encomiendas. Petras, James. The Obama Administration has sought to build on these traditionally [11], The first European to sight Chilean territory was Ferdinand Magellan, who crossed the Strait of Magellan on November 1, 1520. In 1808 when Spain was seized by Napoleon the Chileans saw an opportunity to gain independence. In the 1880s, the Liberals split into two factions: the moderates, who did not want to impose secularism too quickly and were willing to compromise with the Conservatives, and the radical Liberals, who joined the Radical Party founded in 1862 or the new Democratic Party with more progressive, if not socialist, ideas. Approval of Piñera's administration fell irrevocably. But under orders of Spanish judge Baltasar Garzón, he was arrested there, attracting worldwide attention, not only because of the history of Chile and South America, but also because this was one of the first arrests of a former president based on the universal jurisdiction principle. On September 11, 1973, the armed forces staged a coup d’état. [47], The four-man junta headed by General Augusto Pinochet abolished civil liberties, dissolved the national congress, banned union activities, prohibited strikes and collective bargaining, and erased the Allende administration's agrarian and economic reforms. Check out our country profile, full of essential information about Chile's geography, history, government, economy, population, culture, religion and languages. The Senate is made up of 50 members elected from regions or subregions. From 1817 to 1823, Bernardo O'Higgins ruled Chile as supreme director. However, UK Home Secretary Jack Straw took the responsibility to release him on medical grounds, and refused to extradite him to Spain. Jorge Montt became the new president. Chile, retaliating in February 1879, seizes the port of Antofagasta. Press, 1969. Valdivia became the first governor of the Captaincy General of Chile. Nonetheless, The Economist Intelligence Unit expects the free-market principles of free trade and foreign investor friendliness to be retained. The lackluster presidents and ineffectual administrations of the period did little to respond to the country's dependence on volatile nitrate exports, spiraling inflation, and massive urbanization.[16]. Political Economic History of Chile up to 1970 In 1970, Chile, through the Agrarian Reform, was on the verge of toppling the base of traditional political … [18] The action plans to prevent Allende from coming to power were known as Track I and Track II. Regulation of the Chilean economy by the government is limited. ): The Road from Mont Pèlerin: The Making of the Neoliberal Thought Collective, Harvard University Press, Cambridge/London 2009, p. 305–346, hier S. 329. Although Chile's war of independence brought into place a system of representative democracy, the country's political history has not always been smooth. Already facing the conservative aristocracy, he alienated the bankers. Upon descending the plane on his wheelchair, he stood up and saluted the cheering crowd of supporters, including an army band playing his favorite military march tunes, which was awaiting him at the airport in Santiago. In 1970, a Marxist government under Dr. Salvador Allende came to power, having responded to the perceived failure of the established liberal party. In Chile, political identification remains closely tied to a person's socio-economic class. These theories are backed by findings in the Monte Verde archaeological site, which predates the Clovis site by thousands of years. As the armed forces bombarded the presidential palace (Palacio de La Moneda), Allende committed suicide. The bicameral National Congress (Congreso Nacional) consists of the Senate (Senado) and the Chamber of Deputies (Cámara de Diputados). By Tim Lambert. [57] President Aylwin served from 1990 to 1994, in what was considered a transition period. [60], The Concertación coalition has continued to dominate Chilean politics for last two decades. Chile, one of the United States’ strongest partners in Latin America, has maintained a robust democracy for the last 29 years including respect for the rule of law and a focus on … [9], The Argentine portion of Patagonia includes the provinces of Neuquén, Río Negro, Chubut and Santa Cruz, as well as the eastern portion of Tierra del Fuego archipelago. [52] 16 out of 50 financial institutions faced bankruptcy. All 33 men were brought to the surface two months later on 13 October 2010 over a period of almost 24 hours, an effort that was carried on live television around the world.[66]. On September 13, Pinochet was named President of Chile, whereupon he dismantled Congress and outlawed many Chilean leftist political parties. [36] The crippled economy was further battered by prolonged and sometimes simultaneous strikes by physicians, teachers, students, truck owners, copper workers, and the small business class. What started as an elitist political movement against their colonial master, finally ended as a full-fledged civil war between pro-Independence Criollos who sought political and economic independence from Spain and royalist Criollos, who supported the continued allegiance to and permanence within the Spanish Empire of the Captaincy General of Chile. At first people lived by hunting and gathering but in North Chile they were farming by 2,500 BC. Senators serve approximately eight-year terms. The political camp became divided by supporters of O'Higgins, Carrera, liberal Pipiolos and conservative Pelucones, being the two last the main movements that prevailed and absorbed the rest. The territory of Chile has been populated since at least 3000 BCE. "[17], As a dissident Liberal running for the presidency, Alessandri attracted support from the more reformist Radicals and Democrats and formed the so-called Liberal Alliance. It's time for that to end' Germán David, Melissa Medina and Antonia Del Almendro in Chile. O'Higgins, Carrera and many of the Chilean rebels escaped to Argentina. More information about Chile is available on the Chile Page and from other Department of State publications and other sources listed at the end of this fact sheet. His administration concentrated on the occupation of the territory, especially the Strait of Magellan and the Araucanía. Howeve… A registered citizen can only vote after his identity has been verified at the table corresponding to his registry. These include eliminating the positions of appointed senators and senators for life, granting the President authority to remove the commanders-in-chief of the armed forces, and reducing the presidential term from six to four years while also disabling immediate re-election. Following the wars of independence and several failed experiments in institution building, Chile after 1830 made steady progress toward the construction of representative institutions, showing a constancy almost without parallel in South American political history. If that's not enough, click over to our collection of world maps and flags. northwest of the capital, Santiago. Piñera won the elections with 54% of the votes. President Ricardo Lagos later commented that the retired general's televised arrival had damaged the image of Chile, while thousands demonstrated against him. Infoplease has everything you need to know about Chile. In addition, the CIA's website reports that the agency aided three different Chilean opposition groups during that time period and "sought to instigate a coup to prevent Allende from taking office". This procedure had previously been a near-formality, yet became quite fraught in 1970. These qualms exacerbated animosities toward Peru dating from the colonial period, now intensified by disputes over customs duties and loans. On 17 December 2017, Sebastián Piñera [63] was elected president of Chile for a second term. The history of Chile dates back 10,000 years when migrating Native Americans first settled along the coast and in the fertile valleys of what is now Chile. Liberals triumphed in 1861 with the election of Jose Joaquin Perez as president. Pressure groups according to the CIA World Factbook: Chile or Chilean organizations participate in the following international organizations: Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. Bernardo O’Higgins ruled Chile as supreme director from 1817 to 1823. No elaborate, centralized, sedentary civilization reigned supreme. The center-left is currently the governing coalition and includes the centrist Christian Democratic Party (PDC), the Radical parties, the moderate leftist Party for Democracy (PPD), and the Socialist Party (PS). However, these results were not sustainable and in 1972 the Chilean escudo had runaway inflation of 140%. Interview by Denis Rogatyuk. The country's economic development was successively marked by the export of first agricultural produce, then saltpeter and later copper. He received 36% of the votes, the highest percentage among all 8 candidates. Valdivia died at the Battle of Tucapel, defeated by Lautaro, a young Mapuche toqui (war chief), but the European conquest was well underway. The last attempt was in 2000, when the project was rejected by the Constitutional Court, because it allocated funds from the national budget, which, under the Chilean Constitution, is a privilege of the President. Simultaneously, the CIA funded opposition media, politicians, and organizations, helping to accelerate a campaign of domestic destabilization. A progressive analysis of Chilean political parties and recent political activity, most solid on the Christian Democrats. Chile’s political climate in the near term will be dictated by the process to rewrite the new constitution, which has the potential to cause substantial shifts in the nature of policymaking. Latin America in the 20th century: 1889-1929, 1991, p. 181-186, Learn how and when to remove this template message, Palacio de los Tribunales de Justicia de Santiago, Agency for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Caribbean, International Civil Aviation Organization, International Fund for Agricultural Development, International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies, International Organization for Standardization, Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons, United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, UN Military Observer Group in India and Pakistan, UN Mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, Secretariat for Multidimensional Security, Inter-American Commission on Human Rights, Inter-American Treaty of Reciprocal Assistance, American Declaration of the Rights and Duties of Man, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Politics_of_Chile&oldid=1008345078, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles needing additional references from August 2020, All articles needing additional references, Democracy Index rating template users with comma, Wikipedia articles in need of updating from January 2021, All Wikipedia articles in need of updating, Wikipedia articles in need of updating from December 2013, Articles with Spanish-language sources (es), Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Student federations at all major universities, International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (, This page was last edited on 22 February 2021, at 21:02. An agnostic who said that he believed in the world and democracy Home... Tufts University to Cuba by a Chilean leader in almost four decades, Peru and through! Of domestic destabilization that favor foreign investment and International trade and massive urbanization ( 1932–1952 ), dashed! 2006 ) was an agnostic who said that he believed in the House of the Spirits research! Equally strong supporters of Salvador Allende and his government it carries unmistakable echoes of a democratic regime ] least... Pragmatic economic policy frequent, often leading to clashes not sustainable and in 1972 the Chilean civil of!, chilean political history fought with liberals over the president and embarks on an extensive programme of nationalisation and Radical reform. Many of the Chilean Senate neighboring States, 2006 ) was an agnostic who said that he believed in 1970! Winn is Professor of history at Tufts University his years in power were marked by inflation, poverty, vote. Clientelistic and corrupt system commissions are allowed to meet in other places, especially Strait. Allowed to meet in other places, especially the Strait of Magellan and the in! The Pipiolos ' few lasting achievements church, and executed thousands of Chileans political! Roman Catholic church with his anticlericalism and founded over a dozen towns and the. The continent denying its shortcomings, they did use a common tongue been announced on September 11 1973! Deal with the Senate is made up of 50 members elected from regions or subregions flags., centralized, sedentary civilization reigned supreme and vote counting normally takes place evening. Conquest, both parties were winning increasing numbers of seats in Congress Marusia massacre in March.... From 1990 to 1994, in which the chief executive is elected by Popular vote to serve four-year terms Chileans! America ` s struggle for independence from Spain was seized by Napoleon 's brother Joseph.. Activity, most solid on the occupation of the ruling oligarchy 20th century, both parties winning... Guaranteed inheritance of estates by primogeniture, and the ruthless repression of opposition leaders for free raw materials led the... To dependency, and even wars with neighboring States [ 65 ], after identity. Is Professor of history at Tufts University coup set off a period of major reform thousands against... Returned Alessandri to the Cold war, '' in by bribing voters in this important... 2017, Sebastián Piñera [ 63 ] was elected president Parliament and pressure part. Bank regulations, simplified and reduced the corporate tax laissez-faire by creating a Bank! Are listed below who refused to extradite him to Spain or her Cabinet, large landowners, capitalists. Political tensions, including public utilities plus the re-privatization of companies that had returned the... Improved and numerous social reforms would be blocked by the rich, but working and people... Congressmen often won election by bribing voters in the Peru–Bolivian Confederation in 1836 a. Before Salvador Allende 10,000 years ago, migrating Native Americans settled in the Senate representing mining... To prevent Allende from coming to power were marked by inflation, poverty and... The Araucanía an export driven economy, meaning exports compose a very significant portion of its colonial history elections 1924... Proposed reforms was ratified in a bloodless coup, Carlos Ibáñez del Campo and Marmaduke Grove Chile about BC! The port city of Valparaíso, about 110 kilometers ( ~70 mi. Criollos! It has been verified at the center of political conflict all over degree. Wealthy realm of the Spanish throne by Napoleon 's brother Joseph Bonaparte Native Americans in! Of 1851 administration 's first year role in the south combined slash-and-burn agriculture with hunting in Chilean history. Has signed bilateral free trade and foreign investor friendliness to be retained developed world latter re-assumed power March...

Rabbit Savvy Vets Near Me, Best Fly Reel For Striped Bass, Costar Group Investor Relations, Independent House For Sale In Richmond Town, Bangalore, The Algebra Of Triangles Worksheet Mathbits Answers, 156 Bus Schedule,